Evaluation of Total Polar Materials in Cooking Oils Obtained from Food and Beverage Establishments within Shopping Centers
The amount of Total Polar Material (TPM) is one of the indicators of oil quality, its suitability for further use, and the degradation of oil used during frying processes. The high temperatures and repeated long-term use of frying oils during frying lead to various compounds, including polar compounds, through reactions like oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization. These compounds can have adverse effects on the quality of both frying oil and food, and depending on consumption levels, they may also pose potential health risks, including various forms of cancer. The percentage of total polar compounds in frying oil serves as a standard in food establishments to determine when the oil should be replaced with fresh oil. Various countries have regulations that define maximum TPM reference values, indicating when frying oil should be discarded. Generally, a TPM value exceeding 25% is considered unsuitable for health. Examples of countries include Italy, Belgium, France, Portugal, Spain, Thailand, and Brazil, with a maximum TPM limit of 25%. In France, Germany, and the USA, the limit is 24% TPM, while China and Austria follow a limit of 27%, and Hungary is at 30% TPM. This study was conducted using the Testo 270 Frying Oil Measurement Device in a total of 36 food establishments located in three different shopping malls in Istanbul. Its purpose was to determine the TPM content in frying oils. According to the measurement results, TPM values above 25% were detected in frying oils from 5 (14%) out of the 36 establishments. The remaining 31 establishments had an average TPM value of 14.2% in their frying oils. In conclusion, regular monitoring and measurement of TPM content in food establishments are crucial to maintaining oil quality, upholding food quality and safety standards, and minimizing potential health risks, including various forms of cancer, associated with human consumption.